Roger defined in 2014 Skills as expertise or the ability to do something well. Paul Kirschner would define skill as the ability to successfully carry out a procedure, so Paul argues that procedural domain-based knowledge is essential. On the other hand, Roger defined Competences are a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that can be applied effectively to a particular domain.
The 8 EU Key Competences for lifelong learning are:
- Communication in the mother tongue
- Communication in foreign languages
- Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology
- Digital competences
- Learn to learn
- Social and civic competences
- Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship
- Cultural awareness and expression
However the idea of teaching to develop the “21st Century Skills” (at least as it is presented by the OECD) is been largely debated in recent years. To contrast, it is worth to watch how Paul Kirschner debunks with strong and solid arguments and examples the idea of the “21st Century Skills” in this video recorded in February 2019.